BREAKING NEWS: Mueller Concludes Investigation – Get The Facts at Breitbart Special counsel Robert Mueller on Friday delivered his report on possible collusion between the Trump campaign and Russia during the 2016 presidential election to Attorney General William Barr, the Justice Department said. Sex-selective abortion is the practice of terminating a pregnancy based upon the predicted sex of the infant. Sex selective abortion was first documented in 1975, and became commonplace by the late 1980s in South Korea and Binary option brokers in nigeria the outside wife and around the same time or slightly later in India. Scholars who support the assumption, suggest that the expected birth sex ratio range is 103 to 107 males to females at birth.
The human sex ratio at birth can vary for natural reasons as well as from sex-selective abortion. Sex-selective abortion affects the human sex ratio—the relative number of males to females in a given age group. Studies and reports that discuss sex-selective abortion are based on the assumption that birth sex ratio—the overall ratio of boys and girls at birth for a regional population, is an indicator of sex-selective abortion. The natural human sex ratio at birth was estimated, in a 2002 study, to be close to 106 boys to 100 girls.
Human sex ratio at birth that is significantly different from 106 is often assumed to be correlated to the prevalence and scale of sex-selective abortion. This assumption is controversial, and a subject of continuing scientific studies. One school of scholars suggest that any birth sex ratio of boys to girls that is outside of the normal 105-107 range, necessarily implies sex-selective abortion. These scholars claim that both the sex ratio at birth and the population sex ratio are remarkably constant in human populations. East Asia, West Asia and South Asia may be due to excessive female mortality. Sen estimated ‘missing women’ from extra women who would have survived in Asia if it had the same ratio of women to men as Europe and United States. Asia, or over 100 million women as missing from the 3 billion combined population of South Asia, West Asia, North Africa and China.
Other scholars question whether birth sex ratio outside 103-107 can be due to natural reasons. James cautions that available scientific evidence stands against the above assumptions and conclusions. He reports that there is an excess of males at birth in almost all human populations, and the natural sex ratio at birth is usually between 102 and 108. James’ hypothesis is supported by historical birth sex ratio data before technologies for ultrasonographic sex-screening were discovered and commercialized in the 1960s and 1970s, as well by reverse abnormal sex ratios currently observed in Africa. Michel Garenne reports that many African nations have, over decades, witnessed birth sex ratios below 100, that is more girls are born than boys. Korea’s historical records suggest a birth sex ratio of 1.
13, based on 5 million births, in 1920s over a 10-year period. 2002 were 105 for the white non-Hispanic population, 104 for Mexican Americans, 103 for African Americans and Native Americans, and 107 for mothers of Chinese or Filipino ethnicity. 2001, the ratios ranged from 104 to 107. Department of Health and Human Services reported sex ratio at birth in the United States from 1940 over 62 years. This statistical evidence suggested the following: For mothers having their first baby, the total sex ratio at birth was 106 overall, with some years at 107. There is controversy about the notion of the exact natural sex ratio at birth.
In a study around 2002, the natural sex ratio at birth was estimated to be close to 1. There is controversy whether sex ratios outside the 103-107 range are due to sex-selection, as suggested by some scholars, or due to natural causes. In addition, in many developing countries there are problems with birth registration and data collection, which can complicate the issue. The estimates for birth sex ratios, and thus derived sex-selective abortion, are a subject of dispute as well. The two most studied nations with high sex ratio and sex-selective abortion are China and India.
The CIA estimates a birth sex ratio of 112 for both in recent years. 10 period, while The World Bank and India’s official 2011 Census reports a birth sex ratio of 108. Ultrasonography image showing the fetus is a boy. The earliest post-implantation test, cell free fetal DNA testing, involves taking a blood sample from the mother and isolating the small amount of fetal DNA that can be found within it. Obstetric ultrasonography, either transvaginally or transabdominally, checks for various markers of fetal sex.
It can be performed at or after week 12 of pregnancy. Prenatal sex determination is restricted in many countries, and so is the communication of the sex of the fetus to the pregnant woman or her family, in order to prevent sex selective abortion. Availability China launched its first ultrasonography machine in 1979. Chinese health care clinics began introducing ultrasound technologies that could be used to determine prenatal sex in 1982. By 1991, Chinese companies were producing 5,000 ultrasonography machines per year. The launch of ultrasonography technology in India too occurred in 1979, but its expansion was slower than China.
Ultrasound sex discernment technologies were first introduced in major cities of India in the 1980s, its use expanded in India’s urban regions in the 1990s, and became widespread in the 2000s. The exact prevalence of sex-selective abortion is uncertain, with the practice taking place in some societies as an open secret, without formal data on its frequency. A roadside slogan calls motorists to crack down on medically unnecessary antenatal sex identification and sex-selective pregnancy termination practices. Chinese anti infanticide tract circa 1800.
China has a long history of female infanticide. China, the most populous country in the world, has a serious problem with an unbalanced sex ratio population. A 2010 BBC article stated that the sex birth ratio was 119 boys born per 100 girls, which rose to 130 boys per 100 girls in some rural areas. When sex ratio began being studied in China in 1960, it was still within the normal range.
9 by 1990 and to 118 by 2010 per its official census. These illegal births have led to underreporting of female infants. Adjusting for unreported illegal births, they conclude that the corrected Chinese sex ratio at birth for 1989 was 111 rather than 115. Traditional Chinese techniques have been used to determine sex for hundreds of years, primarily with unknown accuracy.