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Episode 400Looking back at the stories Spark has covered over 400 episodes. FBI warns of malware on routers. From QR codes to Facebook’alex tapscott bitcoin stock early days: A tech time warp for Spark 400Which tech stories from the past 11 years stood the test of time, and which missed the mark?

Spark your memory with a list of the show’s most memorable conversations. Can we design our own rituals from scratch? Kursat Ozenc believes there’s a desire for spiritual traditions tailored to individual needs. So he helped create the Ritual Design Lab which operates both a hotline, and the Idea Pop app to provide personalized rituals for clients and inspire new traditions.

Can a router reboot really fight off Russian hackers? Amy Nordrum, a Science journalist with IEEE Spectrum, explains the vulnerabilities of a router, and how to securely maintain one. Monopolies have been broken up before. Is it time to do the same with Facebook? Episode 399Do giant tech companies like Facebook need to be broken up?

Vast majority of twitter users retweet rumours without question. Why the “information age” is now the “reputation age”. Science weighs in on how to end a sentence. Why the “information age” is now the “reputation age”You can’t check every fact.

Can you trust Twitter in a crisis? 398Why AI needs to identify itself. CGI celebrities are courting followers—and controversy. Breaking down the walls of the traditional museum. New technology allows Holocaust survivors to answer the questions of future generations.

Putting down your phone could make you less bored. Wearable tech that puts self-expression first. Millennials are really into online astrology. They argue that wearable technology will never be widely adopted until it expresses something about the wearer.

New book exposes “technochauvinism”New tech isn’t always the best solution to a problem. Spark 396Artificial Unintelligence, the risks of public DNA databases, and how social media outsources its dirty work to the developing world. Closed Captioning and Described Video is available for many CBC-TV shows offered on CBC Watch. Blockchains are secure by design and exemplify a distributed computing system with high Byzantine fault tolerance. Decentralized consensus has therefore been achieved with a blockchain. Blockchain was invented by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2008 to serve as the public transaction ledger of the cryptocurrency bitcoin.

The first work on a cryptographically secured chain of blocks was described in 1991 by Stuart Haber and W. They wanted to implement a system where documents’ timestamps could not be tampered with or backdated. It was implemented the following year by Nakamoto as a core component of the cryptocurrency bitcoin, where it serves as the public ledger for all transactions on the network. In January 2015, the size had grown to almost 30 GB, and from January 2016 to January 2017, the bitcoin blockchain grew from 50 GB to 100 GB in size. The words block and chain were used separately in Satoshi Nakamoto’s original paper, but were eventually popularized as a single word, blockchain, by 2016. 0 refers to new applications of the distributed blockchain database, first emerging in 2014. 0 implementations continue to require an off-chain oracle to access any “external data or events based on time or market conditions to interact with the blockchain.

0 platform, that would explore the use of blockchain-based automated voting systems. A blockchain is a decentralized, distributed and public digital ledger that is used to record transactions across many computers so that the record cannot be altered retroactively without the alteration of all subsequent blocks and the consensus of the network. Blocks hold batches of valid transactions that are hashed and encoded into a Merkle tree. Sometimes separate blocks can be produced concurrently, creating a temporary fork. In addition to a secure hash-based history, any blockchain has a specified algorithm for scoring different versions of the history so that one with a higher value can be selected over others. Blocks not selected for inclusion in the chain are called orphan blocks.

For example, in a blockchain using the proof-of-work system, the chain with the most cumulative proof-of-work is always considered the valid one by the network. There are a number of methods that can be used to demonstrate a sufficient level of computation. The block time is the average time it takes for the network to generate one extra block in the blockchain. Some blockchains create a new block as frequently as every five seconds.

By the time of block completion, the included data becomes verifiable. A hard fork is a rule change such that the software validating according to the old rules will see the blocks produced according to the new rules as invalid. In case of a hard fork, all nodes meant to work in accordance with the new rules need to upgrade their software. If one group of nodes continues to use the old software while the other nodes use the new software, a split can occur. For example, Ethereum has hard-forked to “make whole” the investors in The DAO, which had been hacked by exploiting a vulnerability in its code. Alternatively, to prevent a permanent split, a majority of nodes using the new software may return to the old rules, as was the case of bitcoin split on 12 March 2013. By storing data across its peer-to-peer network, the blockchain eliminates a number of risks that come with data being held centrally.