Paul Otlet’s Mundaneum project has also been named as an early 20th 萬維網的Easy Forex COM precursor of the Web. The concept of a global information system connecting homes is prefigured in “A Logic Named Joe”, a 1946 short story by Murray Leinster, in which computer terminals, called “logics,” are present in every home. Although the computer system in the story is centralized, the story anticipates a ubiquitous information environment similar to the Web. Berners-Lee’s contract in 1980 was from June to December, but in 1984 he returned to CERN in a permanent role, and considered its problems of information management: physicists from around the world needed to share data, yet they lacked common machines and any shared presentation software.
IP protocols were installed on some key non-Unix machines at the institution, turning it into the largest Internet site in Europe within a few years. As a result, CERN’s infrastructure was ready for Berners-Lee to create the Web. Berners-Lee wrote a proposal in March 1989 for “a large hypertext database with typed links”. Although the proposal attracted little interest, Berners-Lee was encouraged by his boss, Mike Sendall, to begin implementing his system on a newly acquired NeXT workstation. Robert Cailliau, Jean-François Abramatic and Tim Berners-Lee at the 10th anniversary of the WWW Consortium.
Berners-Lee found an enthusiastic supporter in Robert Cailliau. Berners-Lee and Cailliau pitched Berners-Lee’s ideas to the European Conference on Hypertext Technology in September 1990, but found no vendors who could appreciate his vision of marrying hypertext with the Internet. The first web page may be lost, but Paul Jones of UNC-Chapel Hill in North Carolina revealed in May 2013 that he has a copy of a page sent to him in 1991 by Berners-Lee which is the oldest known web page. Jones stored the plain-text page, with hyperlinks, on a floppy disk and on his NeXT computer. On August 6, 1991, Berners-Lee posted a short summary of the World Wide Web project on the alt.
CERN in September 1991, and was captivated by the Web. In 1992 the Computing and Networking Department of CERN, headed by David Williams, did not support Berners-Lee’s work. A two-page email sent by Williams stated that the work of Berners-Lee, with the goal of creating a facility to exchange information such as results and comments from CERN experiments to the scientific community, was not the core activity of CERN and was a misallocation of CERN’s IT resources. An early CERN-related contribution to the Web was the parody band Les Horribles Cernettes, whose promotional image is believed to be among the Web’s first five pictures.
In keeping with its birth at CERN and the first page opened, early adopters of the Web were primarily university-based scientific departments or physics laboratories such as Fermilab and SLAC. In April 1993 CERN made the World Wide Web available on a royalty-free basis. Early websites intermingled links for both the HTTP web protocol and the then-popular Gopher protocol, which provided access to content through hypertext menus presented as a file system rather than through HTML files. By the end of 1994, the total number of websites was still minute compared to present figures, but quite a number of notable websites were already active, many of which are the precursors or inspiring examples of today’s most popular services.